ApPEARS objectives

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  • Measurement and visual evaluation of material properties,
  • Reproduction of complex surface appearances,and predicting and minimizing reproduction errors.

The overall academic goal of ApPEARS is to train Early Stage Researchers into highly-skilled researchers, who will form the next generation of scientists, engineers, designers and entrepreneurs in the field of visual appearance and printing with the desire to forge new networks and collaboration. By the end of their training, they will gain not just a doctorate degree, but also skills that will ensure they are cross-disciplinary and open-minded, enquiring and experimental, well-grounded and ready for the academic and industrial workplace. Their portfolio of technical knowledge will include: physics and material/optical sciences, computer graphics, theoretical modelling and performing experiments; it will also include skills in presenting ideas, research methods, project management, industrial development, product innovation and marketing. The ESRs will work on individual research projects (IRP) relevant for the project research objectives and contribute to new knowledge by demonstrating: novel 2.5D and 3D visualization methods, new methods for colour reproduction models, methods for realising complex surface geometries, intuitive 3D printing hardware and software, and new data encoding methods for multi-material printing.

Scientifically, ApPEARS is to extend our understanding of the appearance of prints from two to three dimensions by:

  • Identifying the attributes that are correlated to the visual appearance of 2.5 and 3D surfaces
  • Quantifying their impact on appearance and appearance matching
  • Finding suitable measurement techniques to assess these attributes
  • Explaining and modelling the relationship between physical material properties and psychophysical appearance attributes
  • Defining a reference appearance space with the most relevant properties to communicate appearance most efficiently

ApPEARS will actively further the exploitation of this knowledge in the EU for rational product development and standardisation actions linked to 2.5D and 3D appearance printing sectors, including creative industries, packaging, fine art reproduction, and medical simulation models and prosthetics. The project’s outputs will include development of tools, methods and protected inventions in colour and image processing, graphics and computing, machinery (print equipment, measuring devices) and material sciences (inks, pigments, dyes). It will promote innovation and entrepreneurial behaviour and successful transfer of technology from academia to industry.